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Earth and Space

Progression in Scientific

knowledge, concepts & skills


(Early Learning Goals)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4


Year 5


Year 6





Similarity and Difference


Working Scientifically



Children know about similarities and difference in relation to places, objects, materials and living things.


Children talk about features of their own immediate environment and how environments might vary from one another


Children make observations of animals and plants and explain why some things occur and talk about changes

Observe changes across the four seasons


Observe and describe weather associated with the seasons and how day length varies (Seasonal Changes)





Describe movement of the Earth and other planets, relative to the sun


Describe movement of the moon relative to the Earth


Know the relationship between the Sun, Earth and Moon (spherical bodies)


Know about the Earth’s rotation (day/night)



Gravity force, weight = mass x gravitational field strength (g), on Earth g=10 N/kg, different on other planets and stars; gravity forces between Earth and Moon, and between Earth and Sun (qualitative only)


Our Sun as a star, other stars in our galaxy, other galaxies


The seasons and the Earth’s tilt, day length at different times of year, in different hemispheres


The light year as a unit of astronomical distance


Possible Learning Challenge questions






Where do day and night come from?


What is it like in space?